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Biology is the study of life and its functions. It covers a wide range of topics, from the molecular level to the whole organism.
One of the key topics covered in class 10 biology is DNA replication. DNA replication is a process by which two identical copies of DNA are created. This happens during cell division, and it is necessary for the survival of cells. DNA replication occurs in two steps: synthesis and transcription. Synthesis is when the four nucleotides (building blocks of DNA) are assembled into a strand of DNA. Transcription is when the strand of DNA is copied into another strand, which becomes RNA ( Ribonucleic Acid ). RNA is essential because it plays a role in protein synthesis.
Another key topic covered in class 11 biology is how cells use energy to survive. Cells use energy to do many things, including making proteins, conducting electricity, and converting nutrients into energy. Cells use different types of energy to do these things, and every kind of energy has its unique properties.
Section A: Anatomy and Physiology
Section A of the CBSE Class XI Biology syllabus covers anatomy and physiology. This section aims to provide an overview of these two disciplines, focusing on their relationship to each other.
Anatomy is the study of the structure and function of the body organs and tissues. This includes everything from the size and shape of organs to their operations. Physiology is the study of how organs and tissues work, both in terms of their normal functions and in response to external stimuli.
A critical aspect of physiology is organ function. This refers to how different organs function as a whole unit or as part of a more extensive system. For example, heart function depends on the proper functioning of all its features. Similarly, digestion involves not just the stomach but also other parts of the digestive system.
One important concept that relates to organ function is homeostasis. This refers to the ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment despite changes in its surroundings. For example, when your body temperature changes, your brain sends signals to various organs so that they can adjust their activity accordingly.
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Section B: Cells, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms. Cells are microscopic and contain several molecules, including proteins, DNA, and lipids. Proteins are the largest and most complex molecules in cells. Proteins play essential roles in cell function, reproduction, and defence.
Nucleic acids are the proteins’ primary genetic material. Nucleic acids are organized into chromosomes, which carry the DNA sequence responsible for a plant or animal’s characteristics. The DNA in a cell is divided into four types: A, T, C, and G. Each type of nucleic acid contains specific instructions for making proteins.
Cellular respiration is the process by which cells convert food into energy. Cellular respiration involves two steps: glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. Glycolysis converts glucose into pyruvate, which is then used to generate power in the Krebs cycle.
Section C: Bioenergetics and Metabolism
Bioenergetics and Metabolism is a section of Class 11th biology that Deals with the basic principles governing the flow of energy in the body and its use for metabolism.
The central idea of bioenergetics is that the body can convert food into energy, which it can then use to do various tasks in the body. The different tissues in the body have different energy needs, and the body uses a variety of mechanisms to provide them to these issues.
One of the most important mechanisms for providing energy to tissues is breaking food into its constituent molecules. This process is called metabolism. Metabolism involves the transfer of power from one molecule to another, and it plays a vital role in the functioning of the body.
There are several different types of metabolism, and each plays a specific role in the body’s functioning. A kind of metabolism is called oxidative metabolism. This type of metabolism involves the transfer of oxygen atoms from one molecule to another. Oxidative metabolism is essential for breaking down food into its constituent molecules, and it helps to produce energy in the body.
The objectives and structure of the 11th bio ncert book syllabus have a specific pattern. The topics covered in each section of the biology curriculum- A summary of each case covered in detail. You can find the answers to all these questions and more on our website. So do not forget to bookmark this page and come back to it whenever you need help with your CBSE Class XII Biology exams!