The Indian political system is very diversified yet very complicated. Here attaining majority mark to form the government is crucial. Or else, elected ministers are not eligible to run the government. Hence, Indian constitution approves elected members to form a collation and run the government. This is how Coalition government India is formed where multiple parties run the government. A coalition government is not unconstitutional or un democratic. It shows different parties with different ideologies can come together and run a coalition government easily.
With the collaboration or coalition of parties, ministers can prove the majority in the Indian parliament or in the state assembly (state assembly only when there is a requirement of running the state Government. As there are many states and governments in India running with the whole majority, having different types-of-majorities-in-the-Indian-parliament, you should be aware how coalition government holds a pivotal role in our constitution and how is it formed?
Meaning of Coalition Government
In simpler words, the coalition term means, coalition. It is a Latin term having the meaning of growing together. Technically, it also means to add up different parts into one and make it a whole. In the political language, distinct political parties form an alliance and grow the party together.
However, this coalition government will be called only when there is no single political party achieved the majority in the Indian Parliament. In such cases, two or more parties agree on a common programme and proves the majority to form a government. In this process, there are drastic compromises on common policies as everyone has a common ideology to form a government.
This coalition form of government was started in India back in 1967. This was the period when different political parties were formed and new parties merged in absorption of others. To maintain a political stability, this coalition government is helpful.
How to form a coalition government in India?
First, there should be no single party majority in the Indian Parliament’s lower house (Lok Sabha). Or else it will just have called as a simple alliance.
Second, different parties will come together and agree upon common policies that will help in governing the state or nation.
Then, the Indian President will look whether the elected members are completing the majority mark or not. All members of the coalition government must be above the 50% of Lok Sabha majority.
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If all the above three steps are fulfilled, there is a form of coalition government.
Features of Coalition Government
Salient features of a Coalition Government in India are given below:
- There is a power distribution between different parties. It means while implementing policies, there is a requirement of everyone’s approval.
- Many political parties come together to seize the power and earn rewards.
- There is an always possibility of government’s incumbency.
- Some individual principles of ministers have to be keep aside because of power’s importance. Or else they cannot be in the ruling seat of the government cabinet.
If you belong to any political party, you have the complete power to form a coalition before or after elections. Pre-poll coalition government have a joint manifesto of different parties. In the post-coalition government, there are different parties who will be looking for power sharing. So, that is how all a coalition government works.